What are the Protective Order Provisions in Virginia

Referred to as “restraining order” in different states, Virginia gifts Protective Orders to ensure people against other people who show a physical peril to them. In case you’re looking for a Protective Order (you are the applicant), the Order can give you security from somebody attempting to hurt you. If you’ve discovered that somebody is looking for an Order against (you are the respondent), a Protective Order can force criminal obligation upon you.

There is a considerable measure of misguided judgments about Virginia Protective Orders. Remember that to get a Protective Order; you should go to court.

Who can obtain a Protective Order?

As of not long ago, a candidate looking for a protective order could just get a request against a “family or family household member.” However, in 2010, the murder of UVA Student Yeardley Love brought change in the Virginia General Assembly. In 2011, Virginia Protective Order Law was altered to expand the extent of who can be ensured. Presently, an applicant can acquire a Protective Order against some other party after exhibiting the fitting need.

What must be proved to get a Protective Order?

To acquire a Protective Order, a petitioner must exhibit two actualities:

1) that the respondent conferred “abuse,” and

2) that the Order is important to “secure the wellbeing and security of the petitioner and family or family individuals of the petitioner.”

What is “abuse”?  (Is actual physical abuse or a direct threat required?)

The meaning of “abuse” is found in Virginia Code Section 16.1-279.1 (when managing cases between family or family unit individuals) and Virginia Code Section 19.2-152.10 (when managing cases between non-relatives). Both characterize “abuse” for all intents and purposes the same:

A demonstration of violence, power or risk that outcomes in real damage or places one in reasonable apprehension of death, assault, or real damage… Such act incorporates, however, isn’t restricted to, any forceful detainment, stalking, criminal sexual assault… or any criminal offense that outcomes in substantial damage or places one in reasonable apprehension of death, sexual assault or bodily injury.

In allowing the Protective Order, the Virginia Supreme Court discovered “physical damage or threatened physical harm to a casualty isn’t a vital essential to the giving of a protective order… ” What’s more, “a casualty require not determine what specific harm she fears…” So if your case does not include coordinate physical harm or a reasonable expressed risk, there is as yet the likelihood of a Protective Order being conceded.

Virginia DUI

The Virginia judgments regarding the illegal possession of any drug, except drug, are some of the toughest in the nation. For example, the maximum penalty for possession of a controlled dangerous substance, which is a misdemeanor in Virginia, includes a $ 25,000 fine and four years in prison. However, the state passed a law reducing the penalty for possession of drug for less than a year with a fine of up to $ 1,000.

The sanctions in Virginia for the sale, distribution or manufacture of drugs are even harder than those for possession. These crimes are serious crimes. People who are responsible for the manufacture, sale or distribution of certain drugs, such as LSD or PCP, can be sentenced to 20 years in prison, in addition to a possible fine of $ 20,000. Those facing fabrication, sale or distribution charges of Schedule I II drugs are also subject to 20 years in prison, as well as a $ 25,000 fine.

HIGH VOLUME OR DRUG ACTIVITY

Those people who are believed to be “volume distributors” because of the number of regulated substances that officials believe are distributing face to a mandatory minimum sentence of five years and a fine of $ 100,000 if found guilty. It also brings large quantities of drugs through state lines – such as 28 grams of cocaine, 4 grams of opium, or 1,000 dose units of LSD in the state could be subject to federal drug laws, which are hard. There are also special state laws designed to punish “drug lords,” a drug lord is defined as an organizer, financier, or manager who conspires to transport controlled substances in the state to sell or distribute them.

DRUG OFFENSES

If an individual is convicted of for more than a year drug-related offense, prior offenses may affect your judgment in a Virginia court by increasing the mandatory minimum penalties that may be imposed by the judge. For example, the necessary minimum in case of repeat distribution or with the intention of distributing drugs such as LSD or cocaine is ten years. The third offense will cause mandatory prison for twenty-five years. A fourth conviction may cause 40 years in prison and a $ 100,000 fine.

Penalties for drug offenses can also be changed for a variety of other reasons. For example, convictions are usually improved due to a drug that is given 1,000 feet from a school. It may cause a penalty of almost twenty years of imprisonment and a fine of $ 20,000. Another common reason a sentence is enhanced is that the state can show that the

the defendant that is maintained in the firearm, and therefore, the possession was related to the trafficking of a drug other than the drug.

A drug conviction can lead to adverse legal consequences, and it can also affect various factors of the life for instance, as the ability for finding a job or the place when someone lives. A Virginia attorney who knows state and federal drug laws can examine your case for police procedural errors, and other substantive or constitutional arguments can potentially be used to reduce the charges against you or to win your drug case in the trial.

Stafford Virginia Personal Injury Lawyers

Unfortunately, babies who are injured during delivery usually face numerous challenges for the rest of their lives. Some difficulties are immediately identifiable. For example, parents know that children who suffer injuries during delivery will need medical care and special assistance. Other challenges, however, may not be evident or may not surface for years, say well-versed Stafford Virginia personal injury lawyers.

Difficulties that a victim of injuries during childbirth can face

One of the most common injuries during childbirth, cerebral palsy, can pose many challenges in the lives of children, such as:

  1. Deformities in the extremities
  2. Pain
  3. Intellectual deficits and learning deficiencies
  4. Physical therapy for life
  5. Multiple surgeries
  6. Care and constant supervision
  7. Special schooling
  8. Adaptive devices
  9. Difficulty finding a job
  10. Need for lifelong care

It is very expensive to care for and offer treatment to a victim of injuries during childbirth. Parents often need the help of qualified professionals. A doctor could identify the signs of injury caused during delivery that may not have been detected by the parents. When an injury of this type is detected, Stafford Virginia personal injury lawyers recommend parents to seek experienced legal guidance immediately. An experienced injury lawyer during childbirth can take legal action against responsible medical professionals in order to obtain sufficient compensation to offer lifelong care to the affected minor.

Pay special attention to the child’s physical development

Children should be able to lift their heads, roll over, sit, crawl and walk as they grow. They are expected to make sounds, say words and phrases, pay attention, feel quiet and be able to follow instructions as they grow. If a child is not achieving his goals, or if his way of walking seems abnormal, there may be a serious problem. If parents suspect that their child is not developing correctly, they should consult with a doctor as soon as possible to determine what happens. According to Stafford Virginia personal injury lawyers, parents should obtain a complete evaluation to make sure that their child did not suffer injuries during childbirth without their knowledge. A qualified lawyer can examine the history of medical professionals and determine if legal action should be taken.

Obtain scientific evidence and take some time to understand them

The APGAR scoring system determines the health of a newborn. This system analyzes the following qualities in order to determine the health of the baby:

  1. Appearance
  2. Pulse
  3. Grimace (Silly faces)
  4. Activity
  5. Respiration (Breathing)

A low APGAR score may mean that your baby suffered injuries during delivery. Because these situations can be highly complex, parents should not try to gather information or interpret it themselves. On the contrary, they should get professional help from doctors and lawyers, say Stafford Virginia personal injury lawyers.

In case you find your newborn with injuries as per personal observation or your family doctor, then you must consult one of the most experienced, reliable Stafford Virginia personal injury lawyers to figure out what legal action you must take.

Stafford Virginia Injury Attorney

Many workers nowadays do not know that repetitive or continuous work can have many consequences in their short or long term health, causing from small injuries to injuries that can even reach surgery. One of the most common examples of work injuries are neck injuries, leaving the worker with difficulties to perform their normal work activities, as well as their daily lives, says an experienced Stafford Virginia injury attorney.

It is very important that if the worker has or feels a pain seek the medical attention required, since an injury to the neck can affect various parts, such as: muscles, bones, joints, tendons, ligaments or nerves; In addition, pain that may seem normal can affect other parts of the body, such as the shoulders, back, head or arms. And it can reach consequences such as herniated discs, disc protrusions, a tumor in the neck, torticollis, dizziness, spasms, humps, etc.

According to a well-versed Stafford Virginia injury attorney, the most common cause of this type of neck injury lies in overuse, i.e. when a worker performs a constant activity (also known as ‘ Repetitive Work ‘) it is normal that a discomfort occurs anywhere that is part of the neck. An awkward position on a desk, spending a lot of time in front of a computer with an incorrect position for not having the right equipment, carrying heavy objects constantly, a fall or slip, a burning from an accident, emotional stress or the use of a machine that Physical effort may be some of the causes that can cause this injury at work.

A reputable Stafford Virginia injury attorney says that the medical treatment varies a lot and depends entirely on the cause, but it usually includes ice or cold compresses, physiotherapies, hydrotherapies, analgesic pain medications, a collar to correct posture, massage, and acupuncture and if the injury is applied. It can be very severe, and it could lead to specialized surgery. In addition, it could require various tests and diagnoses to find the best solution, these include radiographs, MRIs, tomography, etc.,

It is very important that, if this injury was a consequence of the work, the employee will report it and seek adequate treatment with the doctors or insurance of the company unless the employer or boss refuses to provide such care or treatment, says a reputable Stafford Virginia injury attorney. The worker can seek help from a Labor Lawyer so that he can file a formal complaint with the authorities, since it is an obligation by law that all companies provide this benefit to their employees.

A well-versed labor lawyer can help you find the maximum compensation for work and that may cover all medical expenses, a temporary or permanent disability, as well as the expenses of the same lawyer and extra expenses that may arise in the case; however, it is very important for the worker to report it as soon as possible and to seek advice and have a medical diagnosis that guarantees that his injuries were caused by the accident at work.

Stafford Virginia Car Accident Lawyer

The United States of America has been characterized for having large cities inhabited by millions of people and the use of diverse means of transport, thus generating a great vehicular traffic and citizens at any time of the day. This results in high rates of pedestrian accidents, say an experienced Stafford Virginia car accident lawyer. Motorcyclists and cyclists do not escape this reality, representing half of the fatalities, according to statistics.

What are the causes of these accidents? The improper crossing of the streets or intersections by pedestrians, lack of skill when giving way to the pedestrian or the driver, lack or poor visibility of any of them, running or appearing unexpectedly through the streets or other roads. Another cause is the negligence of both parties, linked to the intake of alcohol, incurring in serious faults to the state traffic rules, with fatal outcomes.

What to do in the case of pedestrian accidents? The state transit authorities and the lawyers involved in this type of situation play a decisive role. And, they must be very objective, since the courts focus on analyzing the behavior of the driver and the pedestrian, in order to be equitable in the responsibilities of each one, says a reputable Stafford Virginia car accident lawyer. Injuries caused by accidents change according to gender, age and socioeconomic status.

People most at risk are the elderly, drivers and pedestrians under the influence of alcohol, adolescents and children. When using the vehicle, drivers must take special care to be in areas such as parks, schools and any other area intended for use by children and adolescents. If a winding occurs, it is considered whether there was negligence or not, because if the driver took all the precautions, and still could not avoid the accident, it will not be taken as negligence.

If a pedestrian is hit or seriously injured, and he has correctly obeyed and obeyed all traffic laws, then the best option is to obtain legal representation. A Stafford Virginia car accident lawyer with the skill, knowledge and experience in these litigation will seek punitive damages for the negligent actions of the driver, filing a lawsuit for personal injuries and the costs of medical care.

When there are cars, motorcycles and bicycles involved in pedestrian accidents, the type of injuries varies from one to another, the law considers in these cases a fair compensation, ranging from financial compensation to hospital expenses. According to a reputable Stafford Virginia car accident lawyer, the rules that a pedestrian must follow, include:

  1. Avoid distractions when traveling
  2. Cross streets or other road in a surprising way
  3. Children and the elderly must go hand in hand with an adult
  4. Disabled people require special assistance

Insurance companies are benefactors in the sale of their insurance policies. According to a professional Stafford Virginia car accident lawyer, their objective is to use the minimum interest rate and maintain their profits, work hand in hand with experts and specialist lawyers, and achieving equity between the affected parties at the time of incurring any claim.

Stafford VA Personal Injury Lawyer

At the point when a slip-and-fall accident, medical blunder, animal assault or some other personal injury happens to you or a friend or family member due to another person’s recklessness or heedlessness, you deserve justice and financial compensation. With effective case representation, you may receive financial compensation through a civil trial or insurance settlement.

While it may seem evident that the guilty party should accept financial responsibility for property damage, one may forget to consider the additional injuries for which compensation is available, such as:

  • Emergency care
  • Hospitalization
  • Rehabilitative care or exercise based recuperation
  • Medicines
  • Passionate injury/mental treatment
  • Assistive innovations
  • Loss of wages for missed work days
  • Loss of acquiring potential

In instances of wrongful passing, the lamenting friends and family may also look for pay for:

  • Memorial service and entombment costs
  • Loss of consortium
  • Loss of pay
  • Anguish and misery

If you have endured material, physical, enthusiastic, and monetary harms as the consequence of an accident or damage caused by another’s activities or carelessness, contact a Stafford County personal injury lawyer to talk about your rights.

Accident-Related Injuries

Many accidents can bring about severe or horrible physical damage, and add plenty of related harms. Persistent legitimate representation can help you in accepting the reward for wounds you or a friend or family member maintained in accidents or incidents including yet not limited to:

  • Auto accidents (including truck accidents)
  • Recreational vehicle accidents
  • Medical malpractice/negligence
  • Assault
  • Premises liability or slip-and-fall
  • Animal attack
  • Products liability
  • And more

Regardless of the methods for the accident, if it happened due to the carelessness or neglectfulness of someone else or element, you are qualified for look for a financial reward to make up for the harms.

Motor Vehicle Accidents

Motor vehicle accidents are the primary source of unintentional fatalities in the United States. As people hit the roadways consistently, they are accepting accountability for their activities in the driver’s seat. With lives and well-being in question, Virginia drivers should take care of their focus on the roadway and its environment. In any case, we face a daily reality such that is a long way from perfect, and multitasking is a lifestyle that saturates driving habits. Driving without full focus and attention as the aftereffect of phone use, working vehicle controls, keeping an eye on different travelers, and different diversions very regularly result in an accident.

Medical Malpractice and Medical Negligence

Instances of medicinal malpractice result from carelessness concerning the medical care provider which makes real physical damage the patient. Various social insurance experts might be in charge of the aggregate treatment of one individual and finding the one(s) blameworthy of giving substandard care is best left to an accomplished Stafford County personal injury lawyer. A lawyer with huge involvement in therapeutic cases is set up to contest against anybody liable of unfairness all through medical treatments, including:

  • Doctors
  • Surgeons
  • Obstetricians/gynecologists
  • Anesthesiologists
  • Nurse Practitioners
  • Physicians’ Assistants
  • Ancillary medical staff
  • Pharmacists
  • Dentists

Through a survey, a respectable Stafford County personal injury lawyer can decide on whom and to what degree duty regarding negligence damage lies.

Personal Injury Liability Representatives in Stafford, Virginia

If you live in Stafford, Virginia, you have the decision of various lawyers to deal with your own damage suit. Setting aside an opportunity to investigate and pick the best attorney for your case. It is imperative to pick a lawful expert with skills, learning, knowledge or more all, success in personal injury cases like yours.

If you were harmed in an accident on account of the carelessness or heedlessness of someone else, you might have the capacity to get financial compensation with the assistance of a Stafford County personal injury lawyer.

car accident lawyer In Stafford virginia

Every day, car accidents happen on interstates, roadways, bridges, private avenues, and parking garages. Those harmed in substantial impacts caused by another driver’s activities have legitimate rights to compensation. On the off chance that somebody caused you physical damage in a car collision, you might be qualified for look for financial benefit from the to blame driver. A Stafford County car collision legal advisor can help recuperate harms for clients engaged with different sorts of motor vehicle accidents, including:

  • Car accidents
  • Motorcycle accidents
  • ATV and other recreational vehicle accidents
  • Boating and watercraft accidents
  • Airplane crashes
  • Public or mass transit accidents
  • Accidents involving pedestrians
  • Accidents involving cyclists
  • And more

The individual damage practice groups at Virginia law office can work with you and for your sake to streamline the damage guarantee process and battle for the pay you merit.

Car Accidents in Virginia

If a driver displays reckless, rash, or forceful driving conduct, he or she puts the well-being of neighboring drivers, travelers, people on foot, autos and property in danger. A man who is regarded a neglectful driver by law requirement authorities is criminally charged and severely rebuffed in the Commonwealth. In like manner, intoxicated and inebriated drivers confront genuine accusations and punishments. If one is indicted for such hazardous and unsafe driving conduct, the guilty party will face punishments, for example, imprisonment, overwhelming fines, permit suspension or denial, and then some.

Although such driving practices are confined and relevantly rebuffed by law, the criminal punishments, all alone, do nothing to profit those harmed by such practices. With the assistance of a Stafford County car accident lawyer, you can get a reward for the harms brought about, including medicinal medications, property harm, loss of wages for time missed from work, and even remuneration for the physical and passionate enduring caused by the mischance.

Motorcycle Accidents

Any motor vehicle accident can bring about harms and wounds, yet mishaps including cruisers have a tendency to have especially disastrous outcomes. Throughout the most recent quite a long while, a normal of more than 4,000 motorcyclists were murdered in mischances every year in the United States. As indicated by the latest insights of the Governor’s Highway Safety Association, cruiser fatalities spiked in 2012, with an anticipated 5,000 passings for the year. Thousands more are harmed by such impacts. Numerous require hospitalization or long-haul incapacity, and experience life-changing choices. Studies demonstrate that the lion’s share of bike mishaps are not the blame of the cyclist, but instead are the consequence of another auto, truck, van, transport, or other vehicles. Regularly, the mischance is caused by the blind side of the vehicle driver, making it hard to see the bike and legitimately and securely move around it.

A Stafford County car accident legal counselor can legitimately assess the points of interest of a motor vehicle impact including a biker to decide blame. On the off chance that another driver is observed to be in charge of the mischance, money related pay is accessible for the bike driver with the adept legitimate representation.

Auto Accident Attorneys in Stafford, Virginia

Those harmed in a car collision of any sort may confront an assortment of harms including physical, passionate, property, and money related. At the point when the rashness, imprudence, or carelessness of someone else is the reason you are enduring, a Stafford County car accident lawyer will work to enable you to get a financial compensation at the best of their abilities.

Accident lawyers for you

There are various things that you need to look at with the attorney, for instance, the costs of securing the lawful counsel and other legal expenses. Do whatever it takes not to sign on the retainer aside from on the off chance that you have settled these issues. In case you are wary and do your examination as requirements be, you will find a refined attorney who has managed a combination of such cases previously.

In order to deal unequivocally with your incident issue with as minimum desolation as would be reasonable, here are x suitable tips by educated direct disaster harm attorneys close me: clearly, be steady. It incorporates a change and modification since it requires expecting new duties. The basic thing is to comprehend and step by step recuperate through.

While chasing down different attorneys, you have to achieve someone with an extensive measure of comprehension. When you search for a refined attorney near your home, you should intentionally inspect your case with the attorney. They will have the ability to control you about what ought to be done, and what’s more whatever different issues that may rise after some time.

Indeed, even if you don’t confide in it, after the incident and recovery, you can feel help and a sentiment of adaptability since, you will have the ability to feel incredibly enhanced about yourself and step by step consolidate back with your life. Swallowing intensity, persisting, trouble channels people, cripples them. See that there was an illuminated and careful exit (from the relationship) that empowers you to walk around a substitute pace and breathe in a sudden way, says genuine, sensible partition attorneys close me.

Finding a viable accident injury attorney in Virginia is not going to be simple. You need to ensure that you converse with somebody with encounter in the event that you are hoping to document damage claim and need remuneration for the wounds that you have maintained. Besides, the charges of a setback legitimate instructor gets higher as the case ends up being progressively perplexing which conventionally happens when the case also incorporates a couple of social affairs who were in the accident. In case you live wherever in Virginia, you can find a couple of sensible mishap attorneys close me who can empower you to get the best outcome in the most monetarily insightful way.

At the day’s end, you should ask for compensation for the injuries that you have bolstered. In case you feel that the accident was caused in view of someone else’s exercises, you have all the benefit on the planet to record a claim and get compensation. This can help you in an arrangement of ways, and make it straightforward for you to quickly get the money that you are owed. It is exceedingly recommended that you associate with an attorney to find what ought to be conceivable about this.

VA RECKLESS DRIVING LAWYER

In the United States, the power to drive a vehicle is a privilege that the authorities provide us and, in this sense, all those who have the fortune of having a driver’s license have the obligation to do so respecting all corresponding traffic laws and regulations. It is our obligation! Contributing to the prevention of accidents on the roads by driving safely is a task that concerns us all, says a VA reckless driving lawyer.

There was an alarming number of auto accidents in the past two decades in the Commonwealth of Virginia due to reckless driving and distracted attitude. As per the state traffic laws, reckless driving is a class 1 misdemeanor and carries the highest punishment of $2,500 fine, 6 months’ suspension of driver’s license, 6 DMV points, and jail time for 12 months.

The road safety should be an important issue to arouse the interest of all (and motor vehicle drivers, cyclists and pedestrians) and simple adjustments in our management habits can make a big change for everyone, advices a reliable VA reckless driving lawyer. Let’s get to work! Here are some recommendations and tips for driving safely and responsibly. Pay close attention!

The vehicle must always be in optimal condition. It is perhaps the most obvious and, nevertheless, it is what is usually overlooked in most cases. A vehicle is, after all, a machine that must always be tuned for good performance. Before starting a trip, and after arriving at your destination, check the good condition of all the components of your car. Check the condition of the tires. According to an experienced VA reckless driving lawyer, they should always be inflated according to what the owner’s manual of your vehicle indicates and the lines of rolling should not be worn beyond what is allowed. Check the condition of the oil and the battery. Make a list of all the things you should review and do not miss any. Remember, never ever be reckless because your and others’ safety can depend on it.

Everyone should wear a seatbelt. It is proven that its use can make the difference between life and death, says a reliable VA reckless driving lawyer. The seatbelt is the only support that passengers have to hold onto the seats when a vehicle accident occurs. Its use is mandatory (and really necessary). So if you are a driver, buckle up before starting your vehicle; in the same way, do not start the journey if all without exception wearing the belt. For small children, there are safety seats. If you have children at home, then you should check with your trusted provider to purchase the appropriate child safety seats according to the ages of your children.

Try to maintain a good driving position. Is this point really important? Even if you do not believe it, yes! According to a reputable VA reckless driving lawyer, maintaining an ergonomic posture is most often the best way to avoid high risk factors such as driving fatigue (especially if we travel long). Always try to preserve an ergonomic posture that gives us comfort when driving. Maintain a ventilated environment, ensure resting and stay hydrated every so often and avoid long hours of continuous driving. To know how to maintain a good driving position you can review these recommendations of a renowned tire manufacturer.

RECKLESS DRIVING HENRICO COUNTY, VA

Whether you are at home, or workplace, or on vacations, or driving on the road, it is obvious that you want to be safe and secure. In fact, the sense of security is one of the most basic needs of our living. However, driving recklessly or aggressively can harm your and others’ lives and property. There are alarming cases of reckless driving Henrico County, VA in the Commonwealth of Virginia. That is why the State has potentially severe traffic laws regulating the behavior of drivers.

According to Virginia’s Driving Code statute § 46.2-862. Exceeding Speed Limit, “An individual shall be guilty of the reckless driving offense who drives an auto vehicle on the highways in the Commonwealth of Virginia (i) at a speed of 20 mph or more than the applicable highest speed limit or (ii) more than 80 mph irrespective of the applicable highest speed limit.” As per this explanation, if you are driving at the speed of 76 mph on the State highways where the applicable maximum limit is 55 mph, then you could be charged with reckless driving Henrico County, VA.

No one wants to be part of an accident and yet, sometimes circumstances place us right in the middle of the storm. Whether due to human negligence, mechanical problems, reckless attitude, or simply the product of chance, the truth is that traffic accidents happen, and more often than one might wish. Do you feel prepared to face a similar situation? How much do we know about what to do and what not if we are in a car accident? Pay close attention to the following lines that will clear some doubts about a collision due to reckless driving Henrico County, VA.

Let’s be honest, it is not easy for anyone to be involved in car accidents, regardless of how much preparation we have. However, having the appropriate knowledge will help us to make better decisions in such an intense and stressful situation. That is why here we will mention some points that you should keep in mind and some bad decisions that you should avoid in cases of an automobile accident due to reckless driving Henrico County, VA.

Keep calm. Come on! It is complicated, but you must begin to visualize for it. Keep calm is, without a doubt, the best option to help you make the best decisions in cases of traffic accidents. It will allow you to have a cold mind to analyze the situation, help others, yourself and the authorities who come to help.

Seek immediate help. The first thing you must do is make sure that everyone inside your vehicle is in optimal condition, that there are no injuries or injuries. If you have tried to assist them taking into account their serious condition (In case of injuries due to reckless driving Henrico County, VA to the head or surroundings, it is preferable not to move them from the place).  You must call 911 immediately to receive the necessary medical assistance. In the same way, make sure that everyone involved in the accident is without serious injuries and give them the assistance if necessary.